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Double Chocolate Orange Torte

double chocolate orange torte gluten free photo

This gluten free Double Chocolate Orange Torte will make a nice treat for Passover, which is rapidly approaching!  My family, however, needed no holiday or excuse to devour the entire cake on a Sunday afternoon.  This treat is easy to make and even easier to eat.  Go ahead, try some and see for yourself.

Double Chocolate Orange Torte

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  1. Place ½ cup chocolate chips in a food processor and pulse until coarsely ground to the texture of gravel
  2. Pulse in almond flour, cacao powder and salt and process until well combined, about 10 seconds
  3. Add eggs to food processor and pulse again, then add in agave, grapeseed oil and orange zest
  4. Pulse all ingredients together until smooth
  5. Remove “bowl” from food processor and stir in second ½ cup of chocolate chips using a spoon or spatula
  6. Transfer batter into a well oiled 8-inch springform pan
  7. Bake at 350° for 25-30 minutes, until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean

Makes 4 servings

I adapted this torte recipe from a site called Mandelininc.com which has yummy ideas for almond flour goodies.  The recipe I based mine on is called Chocolate Citrus Almond Torte.

Finally, I just wanted to share some disturbing information that I garnered from an article in this Sunday’s New York TimesNicholas D. Kristof wrote a very informative piece on the use of antibiotics in factory farming.  According to his article we, “need to curb the way modern agribusiness madly overuses antibiotics, leaving them ineffective for sick humans.”

Did you know that 70% of the antibiotics used in this country are administered to healthy farm animals.  Why is this done?  It helps the animals grow faster and bulk up, making them, of course, more valuable.  Meat is sold by the pound –think quantity, not quality.

The danger of this practice?  With antibiotics so prevalent, new “super bugs” are developing that are resistant to all existing anti-biotics.  According to Kristof, more than 18,000 people are dying each year from these new strains of disease that are now untreatable with even the most powerful antibiotics.  Pretty scary to think that after close to a century of antibiotic use we could slip back into a world where bacterial diseases (such as tuberculosis) are untreatable and ravage our population on a large scale as they once did.

What can we do?  First, if you can avoid all animal products from CAFO farms (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations).  These types of farms crowd animals into unsanitary conditions, creating infection and of course increasing the need for the administration of prophylactic antibiotics.  If you can, purchase organic meats/eggs/dairy from a farmer/rancher in your area (grass fed meat is actually best, however, that’s another story altogether).

And for all you vegans out there –kudos for not supporting the animal product industry in any way, however, these antibiotic resistant infections are contagious to everyone.  They originate in a farm and can mutate to our bodies in many ways, not just by eating meat.

I am hardly an expert on this issue, nor do I claim to be.  So please, those of you that have more information, leave a comment and let’s figure out what else we can do to change this frightening trend.


posted on March 9, 2010, 65 comments

  1. Christie @ Honoring Health @ honormyhealth.com

    Yum, this looks absolutely wonderful. You never cease to amaze me!

  2. Beth

    Now I know what I’m making this weekend.
    I’ll have to try it in a regular pan or pyrex dish though, due to the lack of a spring form pan.

  3. That torte looks outstanding.

    Thanks for posting the information about the meat – we’ve been enlightened in the past few months about how bad our meat supply is. We’re trying to stick to a vegan lifestyle for health reasons, but every once in a while that grassfed hamburger hits the spot.

  4. Jose

    Any particular reason not to separate the eggs? I’ve read that beating the whites separately results in a lighter cake. Looks like a great recipe.

  5. Sounds wonderful. And thanks for all the food info as well – I am on the sixth round of antibiotics trying to get rid of a bad dental infection and it is not working. Thanks for opening everyone’s eyes. I just finished reading a great – and entertaining book that touches on all of this, too – “The Butcher and the Vegetarian” by Tara Austen Weaver…

  6. Ellie Snyder

    Everyone should see the film Food Inc. Will change your shopping habits.

    Aloha,
    Ellie

  7. Lauren @ celiacteen.com

    Stunning!

    This torte looks like a fantastic way to end (or start!) the day =D.

  8. Thanks Elana! I see that this is kosher for passover, so your timing is perfect (as usual). It’s going to be a treat on my Passover menu.

    Irina

  9. Gabrielle Dodd

    I’ve watched a lot of food documentaries and they sure open your eyes to what you put in your body.

    Actually our local health food store has an organic group you can join that works with local farmers in western kentucky. That was the only thing I asked for from our tax return this year.

  10. kelli

    I am anxious to try this I also love the information you posted.
    My family and I live in a very suburban southern California community in a small home with a small yard but we checked the city ordinances and they allow you to have chickens! So we bought 4 little chicks and our children have had a great time raising them, building a coop, letting them range throughout the day -great pest control by the way- putting them away at night, feeding them , and of course collecting the eggs.
    I have a 7yr old with ADD, my 4yr old is Autistic and an 18month old with many delays, not only has this been fun for them but the eggs (we get 2-4 a day) are delicious and safe. I always get comments about my gluten free recipes turning out fluffier and tastier than others who have tried the same ones. it is not hard to keep chickens for people who live in cities that permit it. I highly recommend looking into it if you are concerned about the use of antibiotics in your food, I had no idea how many eggs we actually eat!

  11. Scary info about the antibiotics. I use them sparingly and always thought that was protection so that when I really need them, my body will respond to them, but that may not be good enough, I see.
    I’ll start looking for a source of grass-fed meat. I used to buy a whole grass-fed lamb from a farmer in Ireland and that was the best meat I’d had in ages. BUT, we had to give it away when we started keeping Kosher because it wasn’t shechted properly. How do you work around that in the US? Anyone know?
    I am such a fan of acupuncture and Chinese medicine that I strongly recommend these to be your “go-to” in the event you have something that’s resisting antibiotics or other Western medicine. My daughter fully recovered from the mumps in 5 DAYS with Chinese meds — without them, she would have been sick for 5 WEEKS!

    • Eve

      Re ethically raised, organically fed compassionately kosher-slaughtered meat: check out
      Maya Shetrit, who has been working on this for some years, is doing really good things. Meat should be available by summer. (She does ship frozen meat, overnight, with dry ice; it is expensive.)

      If you are on the East Coast, check out Elat Chayyim and the Adamah program at the Isabella Freedman Center in Connecticut. There is a group of young people who are learning organic farming, and one of the aspects is raising goats. Some male goats are shechted; I don’t know if they would sell any of the meat.

  12. Candie

    One of the reasons that farmers give the antibiotics is because cows are feed grain/corn, which is undigestable and not their natural diet. It is said that w/o antibiotics a cow will die within a very short time on the diet that they receive. So in order to keep them ‘healthy’ farmers give them antibiotics. This is one of the reasons why eating grass fed beef is healthier. Another health reason for consuming grass fed beef is that it has a high amount of Omega-3 fatty acid, which is the healthy fat that you also find in salmon.

    • Linda

      Respectfully I must add some bits and pieces of what I remember from school, and working in the industry, seems like a lifetime ago. It’s also a practice I disagree with. Antibiotic usage, I don’t believe has much to do with digestibility. Feeds are designed from roughages (grasses) and concentrates (grains), and put together with targeted nutrient amounts to be contained in the total feed the animal eats.

      My take, the demand of the public for more meat as a finished product brought about the need to raise animals faster. I agree that grass fed gets many additional nutrients naturally, but I imagine if that is all they are fed, it will take longer to get to market weight. That’s where the concentrated grains come in to give more protein, fat, fiber… to the animal versus grasses only in a shorter amount of time. Needing to grow animals quicker, also would increase the number of animals raised on that land. Here’s where you run into problems in the cleanliness factor of keeping things tidy in a crowded area. That’s where I see the antibiotics factor in. Not great upkeep will take it’s toll on immune systems, and more tendency for animals to get sick. If they have the low levels constantly, kind of a ‘preventative’ way to keep the animals ‘well’ in their stay at the facility. I know small farms that keep things clean, and have no need/ desire for medicated feeds. I imagine the same is true for larger places that have the land and ability to keep up their farms.
      The ‘factory farms’, look at bottom line and turn around time. I think it’s a big difference between stewards of the land and it just being business.
      It was just my take in what I was around. Hopefully it’s helpful and gives a wider view/ understanding.

    • Rita

      I raise beef cattle and we creep feed the calves corn and oats. We are self sufficient growing our own corn, oats, and hay, so I know there are no chemicals introduced in the herd. We have raised cattle (closed herd) for over 25 years and have not had to use any antibiotics. As mentioned if you provide clean pastures that are not over crowded and have a closed herd there should not be a need to medicate. What is more seriuos, is what the FDA is allowing livestock industry to add to feed prior to slaughtering (NO WITHDRAWAL PERIOD). Mercola.com has some inlightning newsletters – a must read March 6, 2010, Ractopamine
      is banned in 160 countries – including China – but is FDA approved for beef, pork, and poulrty in the USA!

  13. Eve

    This sounds scrumptious; I’ll have to try it out on this weekend’s visitors before Pesach…

  14. Eve

    Hm.
    For some reason, the website I cited for finding grass-fed, kosher slaughtered meat did not come through. Let me try again:
    mitzvahmeat@gmail.com

  15. Emilia

    Ah, I just came up with a recipe for chocloate orange biscotti that i will post on my site soon. The combo of Chocolate and orange is a big hit! I will definitely try this double choc torte.

    Thanks Elana!

  16. This sounds SO easy, and looks so good. Definitely need to add this one to the “must make” list. Looks like one of those desserts you make when you have company. It’ll wow them with little effort on the part of the cook!

  17. Becca

    Looks delicious. I will have to try this. Do you (or anyone else) ever substitute butter or coconut oil for the grapeseed oil in these recipes?

  18. Jelly

    Hey Elana,

    I’ve been blessed by your website as I walk the tough road of the candida diet. I am able to adapt many of your recipes to my restrictions as well as make up some new versions (such as peanut butter and carob power bars, and carrot cake power bars). I came today and saw this torte (tough on the cravings lol…guess that’s my fault for looking!) and was wondering if you have much experience with carob? I have used it for the topping in the power bars in place of chocolate and it works great, but a whole torte…I just don’t know. Seeing as I can’t have any fruit but a small handful of berries a day, there’s no way to add a banana or anything to…well…make it tastier. Any ideas for how to adapt these kinds of recipes to carob? Thanks, and your recipes are much appreciated! I am looking forward to some new passover recipes as we will be celebrating it soon!

    Yahweh bless
    Jelly

  19. Just got your cookbook, but I think I have to make this before trying one of those recipes! I am craving chocolate and this is just perfectly simple. I will just pretend the antioxidants weigh out the overall lack of health factor with this dessert…and enjoy :) Looks very gooey and delightful.
    Thanks again! I look forward to sharing your book and website with future clients and class attendees!

    Laura

  20. Elena Rego @ foodpractice.com

    This post made me positively giddy! I cannot wait to make this. Before I discovered my gluten intolerance, I would indulge in an orange chocolate torte at my favorite restaurant. Since finding out about me and gluten :) I’ve had to stop, but ohhhhh… God… everytime I go to the restaurant, my heart breaks a little. And now! woohoo! Thanks for this.

  21. Diane-The W.H.O.L.E. Gang @ thewholegang.org

    This will be in my oven shortly. I don’t care if it’s 7:30am.

  22. I made this last night for a friend who can’t eat gluten. She can’t eat tree nuts either, so I made this with a gluten-free flour blend and honey instead of agave, and it worked out really well! Thanks for a great recipe.

  23. Online Degrees @ firstclasseducation.org

    I am on the sixth round of antibiotics trying to get rid of a bad dental infection and it is not working. Thanks for opening everyone’s eyes.

  24. This looks absolutely delicious, as everything I see in this web. I will make it for sure, I´m a choco-addict.
    Thanks a lot.

  25. Jen

    I made this cake last night and it is DELICIOUS! I love the orange essence. It may be one of my favorite chocolate cakes. I even served this to non gluten free people and everyone was asking me for the recipe, thanks Elana! Another great recipe from you. XO

  26. Katrina

    Unfortunately the poor animals suffer extraordinary amounts for the food industry and to be able to meet the demand for all the people who want to eat it, the majority of the industry is going to be factory-style.

    It’s not only the antibiotics that are unhealthy for us. The amount of meat we eat is very bad for us as we’re not adapted to eating such large amounts. It’s been linked with many types of cancer including colon, and is high in cholesterol etc.

    Milk is probs the worst for us as it’s completely unnatural. It’s meant for a calf. So the mothers are impregnated has her child taken away from her after only a few days. They mourn for weeks. But that milk will be full of puss, hormones, fat etc (along with the added antibiotics)… everything meant for a small animal to grow big and strong quickly. It’s not good for us at all. Calcium can be obtained far more affectively from veg. The western world (where the most milk is consumed) has the highest level of osteoporosis (bone disease) and places such as Asia (where traditionally milk isn’t drank) has the lowest. Go to milkmyth.org to find out more (think that’s the right web address, if not type milk myth into google!).

    This world can’t sustain the meat industry for the number of people there are. If people stopped consuming animal products waterways would be less polluted, rainforests would stop being chopped down (where GM soya is grown for animal feed), greenhouses gases would be cut significantly, we would be able to feed third world countries (no more starvation). Such improvements there would be, but we are driven by a taste. That’s all it is. Because it’s so easy and much more healthy to live without it now.

    Anyways, think I’ve rambled enough!! The recipe looks amazing and hope to try it out soon. Thanks for sharing this and other other info :-)

  27. Elana Daley @ conceptsintraining.com

    Hi Elana-

    I made this for our supper club on Sat, Mar 20th. We had our 2010 launch party and I was in charge of desert. It had to be dairy free so I made this recipe along with a strawberry drizzle and homemade sugar free melon sorbet. Everyone loved it. Wish I would have taken a photo for you. It’s so easy to let everyone know where I get my recipes. Must be the name… lol.
    The torte was a hit. Everyone loved it and could hardly believe it was dairy free and gluten free and tasted so good. Oh, I also made the chocolate chip cookie recipe which turned out more to be a chocolate cookie with chunks of dark chocolate. They loved those too.
    Thanks a bunch. Now to prepare for pesach. Happy Passover.
    Elana

  28. Laura Robbins @ lalapilates.net

    Dear Elana,

    I HATEDETESTDESPISED Baking, always have. It’s messy, time consuming, complicated and the outcome was usually disastrous.

    Until I met your Almond flour, walnut cookies. Now I am a baking junkie.

    ThankyouTHANKYOUthankYOU for making recipes so easy, consistent, and healthy!!!

    Finally I can own a cupcake pan!

    All the best~Lala

  29. Jana @ Weekend Vintage @ weekendvintage@cox.net

    Yummy….thanks for speaking out on the feed lot beef. We recently switched over to grass fed beef. We found it for a reasonable price at our Local Trader Joes.
    Jana

  30. Sylvia Wildflower Smiles

    This was a DIVINE experience! Thank YOU! This one is getting filed away, to be made again and again and again…

  31. i-geek

    I made this as the dessert for our Easter dinner and wow! Everyone loved it. I didn’t have grapeseed oil on hand so I subbed in a stick of unsalted butter but otherwise followed the recipe. It’s a keeper. Thanks so much for sharing.

  32. Anna

    elana,
    thanks for this recipe (and all of your others too)!! i made it for our seder, serving it with candied orange peel, and it was very much enjoyed… since we only had four people, i’m still nibbling on the cake! i put it in the fridge, and i think eating it cold cuts the richness factor (somehow!) thanks again!
    anna

  33. Eve

    I made this for our second Seder as well.
    I had done a trial run earlier, and discovered that my husband does not like the taste of orange peel—alas. So I did another trial with coffee extract to add another flavor, and that tasted too sharp.
    (I had to find alcohol-free extracts to be kosher for Passover.)
    In the end, I skipped the orange peel and added some vanilla extract, and that was lovely.
    Now that Passover is over—I think I’ll try a drop of almond extract and some cinnamon, and call it Mexican Double Chocolate Torte. I’ll let you know how it turns out.

  34. Jackie Booth

    This is AMAZING. Everyone in my “Books & Chocolate Literature Group” Loved it. and since several of us are gluten free participants we ALL enjoyed this recipe. Thank you !!!
    And now I plan to make it again for my daughter Holly’s 40th birthday just before Christmas with a holly sprig on top! Hugs to you and your family, Jackie B.

  35. KathyinMD

    This was wonderful and tasty! I could not get my chocolate chips to grind down very much even though I pulsed the food processor for a long time, but that didn’t matter. The cake came out well and it was delicious. Thank you!

  36. Meghan

    So I just bought this blood orange infused olive oil at an olive oil tasting store. Great place. Was wondering if I could substitute the grape seed oil and orange zest for the blood orange olive oil. Thanks!

  37. S

    as i LOVE the combo of choc n orange, i made this with the following changes:
    – choc bar instead of chips (for the last step i just smashed it with the end of my rolling pin into chunks) and
    – butter instead of the grapeseed oil
    – i also added a drizzle of orange juice to it
    – and i wanted height in my cake so i baked it in a 7″ springform tin.

    because it was more liquidy than i suspect it should be, and because it was in a smaller tin, it took longer to bake – after 40 minutes it was still slightly liquidy in the center, but after another 5 minutes i took it out because the sides were set; this turned out to be a great decision because the cake turned into a molten lava/chocolate fondant cake, with an oozy center but otherwise solid. my family all loved it hot with a splash of cold double cream.

    it is a very rich cake, and though i have a die-hard sweet tooth i was unable to finish even one slice. my 9 year old loved it and wants it next week for his birthday (but then, molten lava cake IS his favourite dessert of all time). and ive just tasted it cold – very fudgy with bits of solid chocolate coming through. brilliant.

    elana, i have a Q for u if i may: when all the ingredients except the eggs were in, i tasted the batter and it was heaven in a processor – the taste and texture were perfect. then, when i added the eggs, the texture went all liquidy and the taste became a bit bitter (the orange taste that is). my Q is – do we even need eggs in a cake recipe? what exactly is the role of eggs? what would happen without them? i know a lot of vegans make eggless cakes, have you ever tried making one?

    and a Q for the readers – if anyone has made elana’s black n white cake as well as this one, pls tell me – which one do you think would be better for a birthday party (yes, my son’s is coming up next week)? i could bake it and find out but am trying to avoid making (and more to the point, EATING!) too many cakes. as it is, my daughter’s birthday was last week and we taste-tested 4 different cakes for that, so i am all caked out to be honest!

    thx elana for a lovely recipe.

  38. Martina

    Dear Elana, my name is Martina and I’m writing you from Hungary. There are almost 5 months we have started paleo diet with my boyfriend. Fortunately I have found you site which is really wonderful!!! I already baked this double chocolate orange torte, chocolate chip cookies and the paleo bread! They are wonderful! Thanks for the great recipes and please don’t stop!!! :))
    Kind regards,
    Martina

  39. KB

    Delicious recipe!

    This is easily adapted for a regular blender by chopping whole chocolate blocks into slivers with a knife, and starting by putting the wet ingredients in first. I also added 1 teaspoon cinnamon and 1/2 teaspoon cayenne for a spicy “Mayan” flavor. Plus it works nicely for a 12 cupcake recipe if you fill the cups no more than half full and bake 20 min.

  40. Diane

    I made this yesterday for a party, and it was a big HIT! I subbed honey for the agave, and coconut oil for the grapeseed oil, and it worked just fine. Elana, your blog is quickly becoming my go to reference for desserts!

  41. Vicki Bradley

    I made the Double chocolate Orange torte last week for Ed’s 83rd BD. It was so good.
    And the appearance was excellent. I made it with hazelnut flour and organic chocolate chips. I don’t have a spring form pan so I used a 10 inch cake pan lined with oiled parchment paper. When it was done (about 25 minutes), I let it cool in the pan on a wire rack. Then I removed it to a glass footed server. Paired it with a small scoop of cappucchino coconut ice cream and some fresh frozen chopped cherries I had thawed out. Tasted divine and looked spectacular. The guests were very impressed. Thank you for working so hard for all of us who have issues or just want to eat better.

  42. joanne

    I was encouraged by so many people having success with this recipe but mine came out dense, heavy and less than 1/2 inch thick. Where did I go wrong? Has anyone else had the same problem?

    • Angelfeathers

      Mine was like that too, Joanne, but absolutely yummy and a huge success with hubby and 6 year-old son! Bit rich for me so I have to have lots of cream with it! :-)

      I did make a few changes, so I don’t really know what affected it most. My chocolate drops were really tiny so probably melted in more, and I subbed melted butter for the oil and used less agave.

      It came out more like I would expect a torte to be, though, than the picture above, so I’m not too disappointed!

  43. Fantastic! Made it today and it is absolutely delicious!!

  44. Kristen

    I just made this torte. It came out so good, so good I had to eat a piece while it was warms. Thanks!

  45. Marta Scragg

    The antibiotics don’t stop with meat and chicken. They are in any product that comes from these animals such as butter, milk, eggs etc. And added to that is the inhumane way these animals are raised, in a cage not big enough to turn around in, or tied to a feedlot until they are big enough to be slaughtered (which is also sometimes brutal). But as you say that is another story altogether. I suggest buying only organic and if you can’t afford it, eat less and fill up on locally grown vegetables. It’s much healthier anyway.

  46. avtar

    i made this a couple days ago for a friend who doesn’t eat grains and it was a big hit! i am curious though, if i left out the orange zest and wanted it to to have a different flavor – say raspberry, or caramel, or almond – have you experimented with other flavors to compliment the chocolate?

    thanks for the great blog and recipes!

  47. Jay

    Tried this today ! It was awesome. Didn’t use the orange. Might want to wrap the pan with foil shiny side out to keep the outside from getting a bit burnt.

  48. Ira

    Elana, I finally had the chance to make this dessert tonight. Thank you so much for the recipe. Delicious and easy to make. Happy Passover 2013 to you and your family!

  49. Another great recipe :), i prefer to use raw honey as the sweetener instead of agave syrup though.

  50. Elisabeth

    Elana – I could only find Bob’s Red Mill almond flour locally. Although I have ordered your recommended flours, I thought I would take a stab with Bob’s Red Mill. I made the cake per your recipe, but instead of baking it right away, I placed the batter in the ring form in the refrigerator for a few hours while I ran some errands. When I first put it in the form, admittedly, it was a very runny batter. However, after being chilled for a few hours, it was thick. I baked it per your instruction and it came out beautifully!

  51. Ashley

    I recently heard you say on the PMR podcast that you no longer use grapeseed oil or agave nectar, have you made substitutes to this recipe since?

    Thank you,

    Ashley

  52. Ebba K

    Does anyone know the nutritional facts on this one? Sounds delish!

  53. Hello :) I want to start by expressing my gratitude for your generosity in sharing so many recipes and life experiences. It is truly inspiring and we are lucky to have you!

    Just made this cake with a few slight mods and if you’re interested in the results here’s what I got.

    I didn’t have agave or honey so (she says sheepishly) I substituted an equal amount of sugar, but otherwise followed the recipe exactly. The batter was so yummy I had to restrain myself from drinking it. I somehow managed.

    I was a little skeptical that a 10″ pan was the right size; it seemed too large considering the height of the piece in the picture and the amount of batter (ok so I ate some batter… but not enough to make that much of a difference in volume). But I figured well Elana must have some reason for recommending a 10″ so that’s what I used. The result was in fact very thin, but also dense and rich, leaving me wondering if it would not cook properly if made in a smaller pan. After I devour the cake on my counter I will play around with other sizes of cake pans.

    The surface of the cake is slightly crunchy and is a nice counterbalance to texture of the rich moist cake body underneath. There was a unique taste alongside the familiar chocolate, though less prominent after baking. As a newcomer to this kind of cooking, I’m going to guess this is the grapeseed oil. It’s really interesting and I love it.

    I would eat this in a box or with a fox or on a train or in the rain. Thank you Elana!

  54. Oh and I forgot to mention my second modification — I omitted the orange. Just ‘cuz I personally don’t love the orange-chocolate combination. And I can tell you that on its own, the chocolate in this torte shines!

  55. Becky In Maryland

    Making this for the second time today. It is now my favorite chocolate desert. It’s easy and gets rave reviews. Thank you as always.

  56. Melissa

    I have this in the oven right now–if the batter is any indication, wow! It was delicious :)

  57. DD

    I followed the recipe to the tee. Not sure what happened tho. It didnt rise much at all. The pan was an 8″springform. It was like 1 inch tall and the texture was not like the picture at all. That pic was amazing Elana! Flavor was good but it didnt present well at all. Didnt get to serve it to my company :( Any suggestions?

  58. Dawn

    Hi Elana,
    I have noticed in a lot of the dessert recipes, they call for almond flour. Do you know if there is a good substitute for it? My daughter is allergic to tree nuts and I’d hate to make a few of the desserts with a substitute flour if you already know of one that will work.
    Thank you!!

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Comments are greatly appreciated! Unfortunately Elana is not able to answer substitution questions, as the only way to know if something works is to test it, and she does not provide this service. If you have a substitution question, please don't hesitate to leave a comment here, and another reader may jump in to answer. ↑ back to top